I. Natives, Explorers, and Colonists, oh My!
i. Coming over
2. Narrowest point is 89 km
3. When ice cap grows, ocean level sinks creating “land bridge”
ii. Population dissemination
9000 B.C. people had reached
2. Present day US had a population of about 11 million Native Americans
3. The Anasazi came about 5500BCE
a. Navajo word meaning “Ancient Ones” also known as the Basket Weavers
b. Started in enclosed caves
c. Between 400-700CE started living in pit houses
d. Built the cliff dwellings of Mesa Verde between 700-1000CE
4. The Mound Builders
In the east from 1000BCE to 1500CE lived the
Mound Builders such as the
a. The Mayans
ii. Started spreading in about 5000BCE, reached its peak in 900ACE
iii. Have historical records from 50BCE
b. The Aztec
During the 12th century ACE they
moved south from
In 1325 they founded
iii. Were good soldiers, expanding, taking over, and enslaving the other tribes of the region (including the Maya)
c. The Incas
Largest empire in the
iii. 14th century started expanding
i. The Vikings
2. First “Old Worlder” to see the new world was a Norseman named Bjarni Herjulfsson in 986ACE
About 1000ACE Leif Eriksson wintered in what is
ii. Christopher Columbus
Encouraged by a lot of miscalculations he
In 1492, after asking for money from the royalty
of many countries, Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of
Had three ships-
The Niña , the Pinta,
Dubbed the local American Indians (the Arawak tribe in this case) Indians because he thought he
had arrived in
Upon returning home
This is why
The first permanent settlement was
So, why not
a. Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci (1454-1512) made four Atlantic voyages between 1497-1504.
b. Hey named it “Mundus Novus”
c. In 1507 German cartographer Martin Waldseemuller used Amerigo’s name on the new world.
4. Hernan Cortés
1519 started conquering parts of
b. 1521 landed in the Aztec capital and was greeted by Montezuma II and many gifts
5. Francisco Pizzaro
a. On his third try in 1531 took over the Incas of Peru.
After Cortés and Pizzaro, the search up north for equal riches doubled and
conquistadors like Alvar Nuñez
Cabeza de Vaca and
Francisco Vazquez de Coronado explored what is now the
Don Juan de Oñate, in
1598 founded “
a. Not finding any money, he used the natives as slaves to farm the land.
From then, Spanish expansion in the
ii. The British
In 1497 King Henry VII sent the Italian John
Cabot in search of a route to
Under Queen Elizabeth I, Sir Humphrey Gilbert
set sail to colonize the
After Gilbert failed to make it back to
The leader, John White, sailed back to
i. Captain John Smith (1579-1631) led the colony through “the starving time” of 1609 by getting adopted by the local natives
ii. When Pocahontas, an “Indian Princess” helped save John Smith and married one of the colonists which helped save the whole colony.
Separatists chose to leave
c. In 1617, because they feared their children were being brought up Dutch instead of British, they decided to leave for the new world.
Following the Pilgrims’ lead, from 1630-1642
20,000 immigrants would arrive in
f. Harvard founded in 1636!
a. Founded by Reverend Roger Williams (1603-1683)
b. Believed that the land belonged to the Indians, that the government could not enforce religious laws, and religion is an individual matter.
Kicked out of
1632/33 King Charles 1 sent Roman Catholic
George Calvert to colonize
a. Founded by William Penn (but actually named for his father of the same name) in 1681 as a Quaker colony.
a. Founded in 1732 by James Edward Oglethorpe
Idea was to send prisoners from
c. Slavery and rum were not permitted, but appeared by 1733.
iii. The French
Samuel de Champlain (1570-1635) explored the NE
4. Established the fur trade and made alliances with the Algonquin and Huron tribes AGAINST the Iriquois
Jean Baptiste Talon
sent Louis Joliet and Jacques Marquette down the
iv. The Dutch
In 1609 Henry Hudson, sailing for the Dutch,
In 1626 Peter Minuit
Also had colonies in
Lots of violence between the Dutch and the
Native Americans, and also lots of competition with other
Use of the “patroon”
system (where there was a land owner in
v. The Swedes
In 1633 the Swedes settled in
2. In 1655, the Dutch took over with little resistance.
1. First colonists: Spanish
First permanent colony:
First permanent English colony in the
4. Reasons for colonization
in the south, converting people to Catholicism in the
b. Portuguese- The Spanish were doing it
c. British- Wanted NW passage and religious freedom
d. French- Needed money, so NW passage and fur trade
e. Dutch- Wanted to be their own country
f. Swedes- Cause hey, why not?
*Source: Axelrod, Alan. The Complete Idiot’s Guide
to American History.