a. Race- A group of people united or classified together on the basis of common history, nationality, or geographic distribution. Often based on color of skin.
b. Ethnicity- A group of people united or classified together on the basis of common culture.
c. Ethnic Composition of China (2000 estimate)
i. Han- 92%
ii. Zhaung- 1.4%
iii. Manchu- 0.9
iv. Hui- 0.8%
v. Miao- 0.6%
vi. Uighur- 0.6%
vii. Yi- 0.6%
viii. 50 others- 3%
Racial/Ethnic composition of
i. Whites- 75.1% (211,347,851)
ii. Latinos of any race- 12.5% (35,177,738)
iii. African Americans- 12.3% (34,614,894)
iv. Native Americans- 0.9% (2,532,797)
v. Asian Americans 3.6% (10,131,189)
vi. Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders 0.1% (281,421)
vii. Persons reporting some other race- 5.5% (15,478,205)
viii. Persons reporting two or more races- 2.4% (6,754,125)
ix. Foreign born persons- 11.1% (31,237,832)
x. Language other than English spoken at home- 17.90% (50,374,521)
e. Racial/Ethnic Composition of America (1790 ROUGH estimate)
i. Whites- 64%
ii. Native Americans- 16% (1.2% in the 13 states)
iii. African Americans- 11%
iv. Pacific Islanders- 4%
f. Native Americans/Indians
i. The Native Americans meet the Europeans
1. The effect of the Europeans on the Native populations
b. When the Europeans arrived, there were somewhere between 8.4 million and 112.5 million in the Americas
i. AKA- Nobody knows
2. Reasons for depopulation
i. Mostly non-intentional spread of European and African diseases such as smallpox
ii. Some instances of intentional spread
a. Unclear if this intentional infection was the real cause for the spread of the disease
b. It is also thought that it could have come from Indian soldiers going and attacking infected areas
c. It is therefore impossible to know how many Indians died because of this intentional infection.
2. 1837 giving infected blankets to the Mandan Indians
a. Estimated 125,000 died from that epidemic
b. Some argue this is not true
iii. Starting with Thomas Jefferson, vaccinations for diseases such as smallpox were offered to the Indians.
i. Certainly a factor in killing of some specific tribes, but not as important as disease
i. Treated as slaves and manual laborers.
ii. Especially true under the Spanish
ii. Native Americans in the 1800s
In 1800 the French get the
In 1803, Thomas Jefferson sends James Monroe to
Napoleon is involved in a major war, needs
money, and decides to sell ALL of
d. The territory was about 2,144,476 km2 large, which basically DOUBLED the size of the United States.
e. Bought it for $15 million, or what is worth about $193 million today.
f. Most of this land was already populated by Native Americans
2. Andrew Jackson
7th President of the
Hailed as either “King Andrew” or “Old
Brought more democratic practices to the
1. Ended the requirement of owning land in order to vote
ii. Somewhat dictatorial
iii. Wanted westward expansion
3. The Trails of Tears (1817-1842)
i. Violence between the Indians and the Americans was almost constant, with fierce battles during and after the War of 1812 (which is sometimes called the “Second War of Independence”)
1. Supported the “enlightened” view of “removal” (relocation) of Indians from the East to the west
b. The Indian Removal Act
Passed by Congress in 1830, the Indian Removal
Act, in theory, allowed for the VOLUNTARY exchange of lands west of the
By the 1900s it had been reduced to
3. This land was very dry, and thus the Indians had a lot of trouble living the way they were used to on it.
In reality, the
For example on
a. Signed with a small group of Cherokee Indians (1,000 of the 17,000) acting outside the Cherokee government.
c. Called the Trail of Tears
d. 4,000 of the 15,000 Cherokee died along the way!!!
2. Other groups removed: Seminole, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and the Creek
c. Struggle to stay off Reservations
Indian tribes such as the Navajo, the
iii. The Civil War
1. Indians sided mainly with the Confederacy
2. Also terrorized the Union Army in the North (mainly Northwest), but were not necessarily part of the Confederacy
1. General William Tecumseh Sherman
a. “We must act with vindictive earnestness against the Sioux, even to their extermination, men, women, and children.”
b. “The only good Indian is a dead Indian.”
In 1867, sent Winfield Scott Hancock to attack
the Sioux and
George Armstrong Custer had the biggest victory,
v. Indian Wars (again)
War for the
There was a Sioux reservation in the
b. In 1874 gold was discovered there, and the government tried to get the Sioux to leave.
c. They didn’t, and war broke out.
d. The Indians were led by the very skilled Chief Sitting Bull.
i. Won several battles against the US Army
iii. The Sioux easily won the battle, killing all 250 men
iv. Also known as Custer’s Last Stand
v. However, it was the Indians’ Last major win during the Indian Wars.
Other important Indian leaders included Chief
Joseph and Geronimo of the Nez Percé tribe in
1. In 1886 was the last battle of the war, and the Indians lost
2. 243,000 Native Americans were placed on 187 reservations
d. Native Americans today
There are 563 Federally recognized tribal
governments in the
ii. These tribes possess the right to:
1. form their own government
2. to enforce laws, both civil and criminal
3. to tax
4. to establish membership
iii. Limitations on tribal powers of self-government include the same limitations applicable to states
1. for example, neither tribes nor states have the power to make war, engage in foreign relations, or coin money
A little over one third of the 2,786,652 Native
Americans in the
As of 2000, the largest tribes in the
vi. Most reservations have had poor economic conditions and have poor educational systems which has led to many social problems such as alcoholism, drug use and high crime rates.
vii. For many tribes, the only option available is to build casinos.
viii. Native American Poetry:
1. I Ask by Pam Taylor, Cherokee
I lay down my knife
beside your gun,
And ask . . .
Is it good, that we not fight?
I give you my blanket,
In return for your coat
And ask . . .
Is it good, that we exchange?
I give you my land
In return for your progress
And ask . . .
Is it good, that we advance?
I share with you my beliefs,
In return for your beliefs,
And ask . . .
Why . . .
Is it good that we lose our identity?