I.                    Introduction

a.       Race- A group of people united or classified together on the basis of common history, nationality, or geographic distribution.  Often based on color of skin.

b.      Ethnicity- A group of people united or classified together on the basis of common culture.

c.       Ethnic Composition of China (2000 estimate)

                                                               i.      Han- 92%

                                                             ii.      Zhaung- 1.4%

                                                            iii.      Manchu- 0.9

                                                           iv.      Hui- 0.8%

                                                             v.      Miao- 0.6%

                                                           vi.      Uighur- 0.6%

                                                          vii.      Yi- 0.6%

                                                        viii.      50 others- 3%

d.      Racial/Ethnic composition of America (2000)

                                                               i.      Whites- 75.1% (211,347,851)

                                                             ii.      Latinos of any race- 12.5% (35,177,738)

                                                            iii.      African Americans- 12.3% (34,614,894)

                                                           iv.      Native Americans- 0.9% (2,532,797)

                                                             v.      Asian Americans 3.6% (10,131,189)

                                                           vi.      Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders 0.1% (281,421)

                                                          vii.      Persons reporting some other race- 5.5% (15,478,205)

                                                        viii.      Persons reporting two or more races- 2.4% (6,754,125)

                                                           ix.      Foreign born persons- 11.1% (31,237,832)

                                                             x.      Language other than English spoken at home- 17.90% (50,374,521)

e.       Racial/Ethnic Composition of America (1790 ROUGH estimate)

                                                               i.      Whites- 64%

                                                             ii.      Native Americans- 16% (1.2% in the 13 states)

                                                            iii.      African Americans- 11%

                                                           iv.      Pacific Islanders- 4%

f.        Native Americans/Indians

                                                               i.      The Native Americans meet the Europeans

1.      The effect of the Europeans on the Native populations

a.       When Columbus reached Haiti in 1492, there were 250,000 Arawak Indians.  By 1550, there were only about 500.  They were extinct by 1650.

b.      When the Europeans arrived, there were somewhere between 8.4 million and 112.5 million in the Americas

                                                                                                                                       i.      AKA- Nobody knows

2.      Reasons for depopulation

a.       Disease

                                                                                                                                       i.      Mostly non-intentional spread of European and African diseases such as smallpox

                                                                                                                                     ii.      Some instances of intentional spread

1.      To end Pontiac’s Rebellion in 1763

a.       Unclear if this intentional infection was the real cause for the spread of the disease

b.      It is also thought that it could have come from Indian soldiers going and attacking infected areas

c.       It is therefore impossible to know how many Indians died because of this intentional infection.

2.      1837 giving infected blankets to the Mandan Indians

a.       Estimated 125,000 died from that epidemic

b.      Some argue this is not true

                                                                                                                                    iii.      Starting with Thomas Jefferson, vaccinations for diseases such as smallpox were offered to the Indians.

b.      War

                                                                                                                                       i.      Certainly a factor in killing of some specific tribes, but not as important as disease

c.       Mistreatment

                                                                                                                                       i.      Treated as slaves and manual laborers.

                                                                                                                                     ii.      Especially true under the Spanish

                                                             ii.      Native Americans in the 1800s

1.      The Louisiana Purchase

a.       In 1800 the French get the Louisiana Territory back from the Spanish.

b.      In 1803, Thomas Jefferson sends James Monroe to France to purchase parts of the territory

c.       Napoleon is involved in a major war, needs money, and decides to sell ALL of Louisiana to the United States.

d.      The territory was about 2,144,476 km2 large, which basically DOUBLED the size of the United States.

e.       Bought it for $15 million, or what is worth about $193 million today.

f.        Most of this land was already populated by Native Americans

2.      Andrew Jackson

a.       7th President of the US (1829-1837), but the first not born in Virginia or New England.  He was from Nashville, Tennessee and grew up in the Carolinas.

b.      Hailed as either “King Andrew” or “Old Hickory.”

                                                                                                                                       i.      Brought more democratic practices to the US

1.      Ended the requirement of owning land in order to vote

                                                                                                                                     ii.      Somewhat dictatorial

                                                                                                                                    iii.      Wanted westward expansion

3.      The Trails of Tears (1817-1842)

a.       Background

                                                                                                                                       i.      Violence between the Indians and the Americans was almost constant, with fierce battles during and after the War of 1812 (which is sometimes called the “Second War of Independence”)

                                                                                                                                     ii.      Jackson was a General in the army and had fought in many of those battles, particularly against the Seminoles in Florida.

1.      Supported the “enlightened” view of “removal” (relocation) of Indians from the East to the west

b.      The Indian Removal Act

                                                                                                                                       i.      Passed by Congress in 1830, the Indian Removal Act, in theory, allowed for the VOLUNTARY exchange of lands west of the Mississippi River with Indian tribes for land east of the Mississippi River, plus additional payment.

1.      Indian Territory” east of the Mississippi included present day Oklahoma, Nebraska, Kansas, and the Dakotas

2.      By the 1900s it had been reduced to Oklahoma

3.      This land was very dry, and thus the Indians had a lot of trouble living the way they were used to on it.

                                                                                                                                     ii.      In reality, the US government would make a deal with a small group of an Indian tribe and force the entire tribe to move.

1.      For example on December 29, 1835 the government signed the Treaty of New Echota.

a.       Signed with a small group of Cherokee Indians (1,000 of the 17,000) acting outside the Cherokee government.

b.      The US government, nevertheless forced all 17,000 Cherokee to move during the fall and winter of 1838-39 to, 1,930 km (1,200 miles) away

c.       Called the Trail of Tears

d.      4,000 of the 15,000 Cherokee died along the way!!!

2.      Other groups removed: Seminole, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and the Creek

c.       Struggle to stay off Reservations

                                                                                                                                       i.      As the United States expanded westward, the need for land grew.

                                                                                                                                     ii.      Indian tribes such as the Navajo, the Cheyenne and the Sioux were put on reservations.

                                                                                                                                    iii.      The Civil War

1.      Indians sided mainly with the Confederacy

2.      Also terrorized the Union Army in the North (mainly Northwest), but were not necessarily part of the Confederacy

                                                                                                                                   iv.      Sherman’s Campaign

1.      General William Tecumseh Sherman

a.       “We must act with vindictive earnestness against the Sioux, even to their extermination, men, women, and children.”

b.      “The only good Indian is a dead Indian.”

2.      In 1867, sent Winfield Scott Hancock to attack the Sioux and Cheyenne through Kansas.  Philip Sheridan then pursued them throughout the winter (both sides lost people)

3.      George Armstrong Custer had the biggest victory, killing 103 Cheyenne on the Washita River.  Of the 103, 93 were non-fighting women, the elderly, and children.

                                                                                                                                     v.      Indian Wars (again)

1.      War for the Black Hills

a.       There was a Sioux reservation in the Black Hills (current day South Dakota)

b.      In 1874 gold was discovered there, and the government tried to get the Sioux to leave.

c.       They didn’t, and war broke out.

d.      The Indians were led by the very skilled Chief Sitting Bull.

                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Won several battles against the US Army

                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      June 25, 1876 was the Battle of Little Bighorn led by George Armstrong Custer.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            iii.      The Sioux easily won the battle, killing all 250 men

                                                                                                                                                                                                           iv.      Also known as Custer’s Last Stand

                                                                                                                                                                                                             v.      However, it was the Indians’ Last major win during the Indian Wars.

                                                                                                                                   vi.      Other important Indian leaders included Chief Joseph and Geronimo of the Nez Percé tribe in Oregon.

1.      In 1886 was the last battle of the war, and the Indians lost

2.      243,000 Native Americans were placed on 187 reservations

d.      Native Americans today

                                                                                                                                       i.      There are 563 Federally recognized tribal governments in the United States

                                                                                                                                     ii.      These tribes possess the right to:

1.      form their own government

2.      to enforce laws, both civil and criminal

3.      to tax

4.      to establish membership

                                                                                                                                    iii.      Limitations on tribal powers of self-government include the same limitations applicable to states

1.      for example, neither tribes nor states have the power to make war, engage in foreign relations, or coin money

                                                                                                                                   iv.      A little over one third of the 2,786,652 Native Americans in the United States live in three states: California at 413,382, Arizona at 294,137 and Oklahoma at 279,559

                                                                                                                                     v.      As of 2000, the largest tribes in the U.S. by population were: Cherokee, Navajo, Choctaw, Sioux, Chippewa, Apache, Blackfeet, Iroquois, and Pueblo.

                                                                                                                                   vi.      Most reservations have had poor economic conditions and have poor educational systems which has led to many social problems such as alcoholism, drug use and high crime rates.

                                                                                                                                  vii.      For many tribes, the only option available is to build casinos.

                                                                                                                                viii.      Native American Poetry:

1.      I Ask by Pam Taylor, Cherokee

2.      I lay down my knife
beside your gun,
And ask . . .
Is it good, that we not fight?

3.      I give you my blanket,
In return for your coat
And ask . . .
Is it good, that we exchange?

4.      I give you my land
In return for your progress
And ask . . .
Is it good, that we advance?

5.      I share with you my beliefs,
In return for your beliefs,
And ask . . .
Why . . .
Is it good that we lose our identity?

6.      http://www.fortunecity.com/victorian/holbein/369/napoet.htm